From 1984 until 1988, Axel Prokop studied medicine at the Comprehensive University of Essen. After his studies, he finalized his PhD at the Institute for Legal Medicine at the University of Cologne on the subject "Sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum? Morphometric examination based on autopsy material and MRIs 1989 in Cologne. He then worked as a scientific employee at the surgery of the University of Cologne, from July 1994 as a trauma surgeon. As from 1996 he worked as a senior physician and was promoted to chief senior physician in 2004. In an experimental comparative study promoted by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMFT), Prokop examined new bioresorbable materials for osteochondral fracture fixation and qualified as a professor in the specialist area Surgery and Accident Surgery on the topic polylactide and tricalcium phosphate. Improvement of biodegradable implants in compound.
In 2005, Prokop was appointed professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Sankt Augustin in the specialist area Accident and Social Medicine. In 2006, he was appointed associate professor at Cologne University Clinic. In 2007 he was appointed head physician for accident surgery at the academic teaching hospital of the Sindelfingen-Böblingen Clinics and was in July 2007 re-appointed professor at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen. He is a specialist for surgery, accident surgery and orthopaedics, and holds additional qualifications in special accident surgery, surgical intensive medicine and specialist rescue medicine, sports medicine and medical quality management.